Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Examples Of Chivalry In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight

In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, King Arthur’s court is the epitome of chivalry within its own secluded walls. The code of chivalry to which the knights adhere to included many virtues like mercy, courage, valour, fairness, protection for the weak, a loyalty to their lord, willingness to give up their life for another and the widely known courtly love. In the outside world when faced with opposing ideals and trials this code of chivalry is quickly forgotten or rather ignored. Looking at Sir Gawain in his travels shows how the behavior that was so prized and common in the court, is not used or shown on his journey to find the Green Knight. Even though he had the pentangle on his shield as a reminder of the behavior he should exhibit†¦show more content†¦While still at the court a year later when he had to find the Green Knight to receive the same strike he gave to the knight, which so happened to be a killing blow. He could have stayed in the hall, but he felt a ne ed to follow the code so he set out into the land to find the Knight as he said he would. Although it would have been a poor choice in the eyes of a knight if he hadn’t gone, as he would have to keep his word to prove his courage and bravery. For his journey to meet the Green Knight, Gawain has the symbol of the pentangle to remind him of the five virtues he holds so highly and to exhibit them along the way. When he couldn’t find some place to attend Christmas mass he prays to the Virgin Mary in hopes of finding a place and he is rewarded for his action as that is when he is taken to Lord Bertilak’s castle. This however was not the case for him the entire journey as there were multiple times he strayed from them. The major times he strayed from the code was when he was a guest in Bertilak’s castle. The host put his wife up to seducing Gawain for the game he had proposed to the knight. Where the courtly behavior between the two was a facade as they were both lying to one another in a sense. The Lady of the castle never told that her husband put her up to it and Gawain would feign sleep and keep his true thoughts to himself. Although he still refuses the Lady in a chivalrous manner which can be seen as the ideal behaviorShow MoreRelatedChivalry Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight904 Words   |  4 PagesChivalry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight There are many great movies, like â€Å"300† or â€Å"Saving Private Ryan,† that are told with the classic chivalry elements that were known to describe the noble knights from hundreds of years ago. Much like the courageous soldiers in these movies, Sir Gawain in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, faced many conflicts that might have questioned his moral code of nobleness. Sir Gawain was a great knight that was loyal to King Arthur and had the courage to take on theRead MoreSir Gawain And The Green Knight Chivalry Essay796 Words   |  4 PagesKnights and shining armor, is a modern day description of knights. These knights road on horseback, jousted, but more importantly, served by a code. This was a code dealing with chivalry, in which knights obeyed by. The article Nighthood and Chivalry, defines it by, â€Å"In modern English, chivalry means the ideals, virtues, or characteristics of knights,† (Velde). There is one specific knight who shows this code in the sto ry, Sir Gawain and The Green Knight. The knight is Gawain, a noble and courageousRead MoreA Knight s Honor : An Analysis Of Chivalry865 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of Chivalry† Throughout history, people of certain cultures base their lives off special rules, or codes. The Anglo-Saxons took examples from the epic hero of Beowulf. Knights during King Arthur’s rule lasted by the code of Chivalry. Lessons from this honorable code can be extracted from the text of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, as well as from Morte D’Arthur. Each of these memorable pieces of literature show examples of the code of chivalry. The three aspects of chivalry are courageRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales, written by Chaucer, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, written by an1600 Words   |  7 PagesThe Canterbury Tales, written by Chaucer, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, written by an anonymous author, are both sophisticated fourteenth-century examples of medieval romance. Medieval romances captured the heart of their audiences as narratives and stories that featured a protagonist, often a knight, and dealt with religious allegories, chivalry, courtly love, and he roic epics. The concept of the knight emerged from the remnants of the Anglo-saxon literature and ideals and influence of theRead MoreSir Gawain And The Green Knight967 Words   |  4 Pages4 Period J 1 Oct 2015 Chivalry In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight Sir Gawain and The Green Knight is considered not only a most brilliant example of Middle English poetry but one of the jewels in the crown English Literatures, and sits in the British Library under conditions of high security and controlled humidity. In the anonymously written story, Sir Gawain And The Green Knight shows Sir Gawain’s chivalry form his loyalty to his King, being testing by Green Knight, and his behavior duringRead MoreCantos Themes Of Chivalry In The Green Knight905 Words   |  4 Pagesshown. The main theme is chivalry. This was the system used in medieval times by knights. It shows the characteristics of a knight that should be present. These include respect, courage, justice, and honesty. These are all shown when the Green Knights shows up in Camalote he comes with a challenge to test the knights chivalry. The challenge is simple, someone can cut the Green Knights head off as long as he is able to do it to them one year from now. Gawain takes the Green K night’s challenge and cutsRead MoreThe Code Of Chivalry And The Fundamental Thoughts And Actions Of Human Nature1499 Words   |  6 PagesEnglish 2223 Jennifer Smith 26 November 2015 Sir Gawain†¦ Chivalric? By analyzing Sir Gawain’s attempts of following the Code of Chivalry and the fundamental thoughts and actions of human nature helps to further analyze Gawain’s character. The definition of Chivalry is the â€Å"set of values and code of conduct for the medieval knightly class† (Shatz) examining Gawain’s attempts to achieve his goal of being the perfect chivalric knight, the nature of his obstacles has to be determined, andRead MoreEssay on Chivalric Romance in Sir Gawin and the Green Knight701 Words   |  3 Pagesdoes a Chivalric Romance really represent? In â€Å"Sir Gawain and The Green Knight,† Sir Gawain continuously proves his knightly virtues and code of honor. Chivalry includes bravery, honor and humanity. He proves that he is in fact a â€Å"real† knight. It shows many ways that â€Å"Sir Gawain and the Green Knight† are perfect and the emphasis on the importance of the chivalric code. Despite its divine origins, the chivalric code is ultimately a human ideal. Chivalry is not a trait naturally found in man, but ratherRead MoreMonty Python Satire Essay1647 Words   |  7 Pagesacts of chivalry, being hilariously mocked. â€Å"What, ridden on a horse?† â€Å"Yes!† â€Å"You re using coconuts!† â€Å"What?† â€Å"You ve got two empty halves of coconuts and you’re bangin em together.† This is a prime example of satire directed at chivalry today. People seem to think that chivalry is rooted so far in the past that it’s gone. I can say that it may be gone from some minds, but definitely not all. To be a good and true knight, a man had to follow certain ideals, ideals of chivalry and courtlyRead MoreThe Middle Ages : Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1742 Words   |  7 PagesAges†). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was written in the thirteenth and fourteenth century, along with Morte D’Arthur. Both medieval epics exemplify bravery and courage as their themes. â€Å"The only universal European institution during the Medieval Era was the Catholic Church which had all the local power within the local bishops† (Sagona). The church saw itself as the only spiritual place of Christian believers, thus it had a large amount of influence on Medieval people, including knights. Christian

Monday, May 18, 2020

Essay on The History and Future of Cyborgs - 2740 Words

In the latter half of the twentieth century society, culture and science evolved visions and capability around the common prefix ‘cyber’. It took on several virtual, computational, functional, scientific, sexual and criminal connotations. In the 21st Century, many computational notions have been replaced by ‘e’ to mean ‘of computer’ - however ‘cyber’, represented in music, words and films emerging at this time, which communicate the content of culture at the time, not simply technology – have not become ePeople, eMusic or eFilms, but remained postulated in cyberculture. Cark (2004) identifies Manfred Clynes and co-author Nathan Kline as first coining the phrase Cyborg in a story called Cyborgs and Space published in Astronautics†¦show more content†¦Thousands of people (experts and non) have updated, moderated and discussed changes to the entry since it first appeared on the site on 18th October, 2001, demonstrating continuing social negotiation and interpretation of the concept. Also in Wikipedia is reference to the cybernetic scientist Professor Kevin Warwick, one of many involved evolving ‘cybernetic’ research. Warwick received an biotechnological implanted chip in 2002. It was placed is arm, through the skin, allowing him to send data from nerve impulses to a computer by connecting a data cable. To elaborate the Cyborg discussion around limits requires it to be placed inside wider, existing discussion. There are two fundamental perspectives to the debate. The Bioconservatists (social, eithical, cultural, economic) and the Transhumanists (biological science, technology). With very different worldviews. Condorcet (1979) wrote â€Å"man will not become immortal, but cannot the span constant increase between the moment he begins to live and the time when naturally, without illness or accident, he finds life a burden†. Bostrom (2003) suggested in order for humans to evolve, they need to explore the larger space of possible modes of being that is currently inaccessible to them because of their biological limitations. Science fiction offers a world-future redefined by technological evolution. Huxley (1932) describes a dystopia where psychological conditioning,Show MoreRelatedEssay about Cyborgs: a Twisted Double Standard1654 Words   |  7 Pagesmodern phenomenon, nor a vision of the future, as Chislenko suggests. While people have been playing with the images of cyborg future of their bodies, they have overlooked the ongoing process of functional cyborgization they were already taking part in. And this functional cyborgization is on a global scale. Every person on the planet is in someway reliant on technology to perform their daily, necessary functions, from showering to eating. Being a cyborg isnt all bad though: You become moreRead MoreAn Analysis Of Haraway s Manifesto Manifesto Essay1375 Words   |  6 Pages In a world invested in (overly) determined-biological authenticity, its margins will be populated by the identified and self-identifying cyborgs. This is not a coincidence. Haraway’s Manifesto strongly suggests that in such a mixed subjugated population emergent opportunities for political alliances based on affinities thrives. She reminds us that cyborgs do not/cannot respect traditional boundaries and are therefore driven by ‘survival’ (294) imperatives to reach across, to break through, to shatterRead MoreThe Human Of Human Beings1142 Words   |  5 Pagesthis is due to technology and the adaptation to form it to the needs and desires of the human species. Author Michael Bess writes a provocative article about how human beings are already cyborgs, due to the enculturation, enskilment and adaptation of technologies of the human species (Bess 2008). The term cyborg is defined as â€Å"a person whose physiological functioning is aided by or dependent upon a mech anical or electronic device†( n.d.). It is difficult to consider this melding ofRead MoreAndy Clarks Natural-Born Cyborgs Essay1185 Words   |  5 Pages Andy Clark, in Natural-Born Cyborgs, offers an extended argument that technology’s impact on and intertwining with ordinary biological human life is not to be feared, either psychologically or morally. Clark offers several key concepts towards his line of reasoning. Clark argues that a human being thinks and reasons based on the biological brain and body dynamically linked with the culture and technological tools transparently accessible to the human. This form of thinking and reasoning developsRead MoreTechnology : A World Where There Is No Afterlife1627 Words   |  7 Pagesup with the term â€Å"cyborg,† the combination of a physical human with computing components and technological devices (Featherstone). However, in the 20th century, the cyborg was fictional. Modern futurists such as Michio Kaku claim that cyborgs already exist and that humanity will ultimately become â€Å"trans- human,† surpassing the physical and mental limitations of the human body as i t is known (Kaku). In truth, cyborgs already exist. For example, a colorblind artist with a â€Å"cyborg third-eye† that allowsRead MoreA Very Short Story By David Seed1476 Words   |  6 Pagesin six chapters the unconventional genre known as science fiction.   The In the Novel, A Very Short Story By David Seed, he   includes topics such as science and technology, space, aliens, utopias, gender, and its relation to time past, present, and future and so on. To begin, before reading this book I had a good understanding of science fiction due to the novels that I have read and discussed in class this semester. Having said that I had some problems while reading this novel.   First, I felt thatRead MoreThe Future Of Species729 Words   |  3 PagesGracie McCooe 9/24/15 Science 8A Period 2 The Future of Species It’s the age old conundrum of the future. Where we are going to be in 10 years, or in 100, or 1,000,000,000,000,000. No one can really agree on any one path for our future, there are many varieties of ideas and theories out there, and people seem seem to eager to choose which path humans will pursue. Will we become cyborgs or genetically modified? will we be mono-ethnic? Will humans involved in space colonization become adaptedRead MoreArticle by Evan Dashevsky Analysis756 Words   |  3 PagesWhen I started school, my goal was to be successful in my future before having children’s. I’m 26 years old now and I still do not have children. So, if â€Å" children born in 2014 may face far different set of issues† (Dashevsky, 2014) then me, it’s a little scary to think what my child might be facing, the longer I take to have one. Born in 1987, I already haven seen over the years things have changes in history. Now imagine when my children arrive. If I had a child now, in 2045 they will be 31Read MoreSurgery: A Groundbreaking Medical Advancement of all Time799 Words   |  3 Pagesaccurate as well as successful. Science-Fiction might be an interesting topic for many people and thinking about what surgeries will be in the future will require some fiction thinking since present-day we are so advanced already. Robots are already used in surgeries but they are still not very common and they are still being developed which may lead to a future surgeries done by robots being controlled through a computer without requiring the surgeon to be in the operation room in the first place. SurgeriesRead MoreA Cautionary Analysis of Transhumanist Philosophy Essay1487 Words   |  6 Pagescan read about a future full of fantastic gadgets, advanced artificial intelligences, and superhuman cyborgs. Although some of these things may seem far-fetched, with recent scientific advancements, it may soon be possible for people to enjoy some the amazing technologies that they read about, such as life-extension therapies or cybernetic implants. A new philosophy known as Transhumanism has emerged in response to these i nnovations and has embraced this vision of a death-free future populated by enhanced

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Code Of Business Ethics - 906 Words

CyberCore Security Inc. Squared (CCSI2) is in business to create value for our clients, however, our true reason is to be of service to our country, our communities, and our fellow citizens. We do this through customer-focus performance in the products and services we provide with high quality and on time contracts. Honesty, service, integrity and accountability underline, permeate, and incorporates who we are and â€Å"what we do†. Ethical behavior is the foundation of our company and is mandatory from our employees beginning at â€Å"day one† in all their actions and activities and is expected from our business partners as well. We will not tolerate unethical behavior from anyone within the company or by anyone with whom we do business! Any employee violating our Code of Conduct will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination. This Code of Business Ethics and Conduct is an integral part of the company’s compliance program, which is directed at ensuring compliance with the myriad of rules, regulations, and laws that apply to CCSI2 as a Government Contractor and Commercial Contractor. The Code sets forth the standards that guide our actions and applies to everyone. Honesty and Service Honesty and service implies ethical behavior, quality work and customer satisfaction, caring about our people and serving our country and communities well. Ethical Behavior CCSI2 stresses corporate and personal integrity. We comply with all known laws and regulations,Show MoreRelatedCode of Ethics for Business1508 Words   |  7 PagesCode of Ethics Company A is committed to providing expertise management consulting to nonprofit organizations that serve and meet the needs of citizens and communities. This Code of Ethics sets forth standards of behavior for our employees and managers. It is intended to assist them in fulfilling their duties and public representation of Company A. Employee Standards The success of Company A depends on our clients and their confidence in our services. We need to value that nonprofits are supportedRead MoreBusiness Code of Ethics1834 Words   |  8 PagesBusiness CODE of ETHICS JAMES HANKERSON PHL/323 ETHICS in BUSINESS JUNE 22, 2011 JAMEELAH YESUFU Business CODE of ETHICS When face with major problems and dilemmas within the company, management look to the standards of ethical conduct for guidance. Code of Ethics is the backbone to any organization or corporation. When a possible violation has accrued one has to ask three questions. Will my actions be fair, would I be please with the decision that I make, and can others learn from my actions. CodeRead MoreBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Social Code Essay1422 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION Business ethics is a form of ethics which is applied in the field of business and it deals with the ethical issues and principles arising in a business background. In short business ethics means to carry on business for the human welfare and the benefit of the society. Business ethics is the study of business situations, activities and decisions where issues of right and wrong are addressed (Trevino.,1986)†. 1. Nature of Business ethics: The following are the features of business ethics:Read MoreEvaluation of a Business Code of Ethics1271 Words   |  6 PagesEvaluation of a Business Code of Ethics, The Hershey’s Company PHL/323 Mission Statement Hershey’s Mission Statement noted here, (Social- Responsibility/Marketplace) â€Å"Bringing sweet moments of Hershey happiness to the world every day,† Provides the focusRead MoreBusiness Code of Ethics Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesBusiness Code of Ethics Every organization should have a code of ethics in place as a guide for their business to follow. The code of ethics should address the major components that are important to the particular business needs. The Society of Professional Journalists has a code of ethics that guide journalists toward the proper reporting methods and protocol which is meant to ensure that fact based journalism is the result passed on to the community. The code of ethics consists of four majorRead MoreThe Malaysian Business Code of Ethics2442 Words   |  10 PagesThe Malaysian Business Code of Ethics (Rukuniaga) Introduction The Malaysian Business Code of Ethics is based on the religions, philosophical and cultural values of Malaysian. It was undertaken by national Consumer’s Protection Consultative Council and Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs to develop self regulation among traders in Malaysia. Objective The Malaysian Business Code of Ethics was formulated with the objective of: - * Preparing   the main principles to be applied by MalaysianRead MoreCode Of Ethics And Business Conduct Essay1521 Words   |  7 PagesCODE OF ETHICAL CONDUCT Our Code of Ethics and Business Conduct (the Code) speaks ethical conduct in our work environment, business practices and relationships with external stakeholders. This sets out the rules and regulations that all our employees will follow to regulate successful business. Everybody at the organization needs to abide by these rules and principles set, as we will have zero tolerance who disagrees to this. Our code of ethics include the following: 1. Compliance with the Law: Read MoreCode of Business: Ethics and Conduct7244 Words   |  29 PagesCODE OF BUSINESS ETHICS AND CONDUCT Everything  we  do  Ã‚   should  be  with  the  Ã‚   highest  integrity.  Ã‚   No  ethical  shortcuts  Ã‚   of  any  kind.  Ã‚   Integrity  and  honesty  Ã‚   are  simply  Ã‚   not  optional.   2        Ã‚     Ã‚   NOTE  TO  EMPLOYEES:  In  this  Code,  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Company†Ã‚  means  Burger  King  Corporation  and  its  subsidiaries  and   affiliates.  This  Code  is  not  an  employment  contract  and  compliance  with  this  Code  does  not  guarantee   continued  employment  with  the  Company.  Any  modification  to  current  terms  and  conditions  of  your  Read MoreEthics Codes And The World Of International Business1404 Words   |  6 PagesEthics or what it is sometimes known as moral philosophy is an idea that involves the decision or right or wrong conduct. Ethics play a very vital role in any business and especially in the world of international business. In an international business setting the set of ethically right doings expands greatly due to a particular countries ethics standards. Not all ethics standards are the same especially when dealing with countries across the s eas from the United States of America. Due to differentRead More Code of Business Conduct and Ethics Essay3828 Words   |  16 PagesCode of Business Conduct and Ethics Introduction The TSYS Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the quot;Codequot;) covers a wide range of business practices and procedures. While it does not cover every issue that may arise, this Code outlines basic principles to guide all employees and officers of the Company and its majority-owned subsidiaries (quot;team membersquot;). In addition, all members of the Companys Board of Directors and members of the boards of directors of the Companys majority-owned

Monosaccharides Essay Example For Students

Monosaccharides Essay Monosaccharide also called SIMPLE SUGAR, any of the basic compounds that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones; that is, they are molecules with more than one hydroxyl group (-OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O) either at the terminal carbon atom (aldose) or at the second carbon atom (ketose). The carbonyl group combines in aqueous solution with one hydroxyl group to form a cyclic compound (hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal). Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule; trioses have three, tetroses four, pentoses five, hexoses six, and heptoses seven. Most contain five or six. The most important pentoses include xylose, found combined as xylan in woody materials; arabinose from coniferous trees; ribose, a component of ribonucleic acids and several vitamins; and deoxyribose, a component of deoxyribonucleic acid. Among the most important aldohexoses are glucose, mannose, and galactose; fructose is a ketohexose. Several derivatives of monosaccharides are important. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is derived from glucose. Important sugar alcohols (alditols), formed by the reduction of (i.e. , addition of hydrogen to) a monosaccharide, include sorbitol (glucitol) from glucose and mannitol from mannose; both are used as sweetening agents. Glycosides derived from monosaccharides are widespread in nature, especially in plants. Amino sugars (i.e. , sugars in which one or two hydroxyl groups are replaced with an amino group, -NH2) occur as components of glycolipids and in the chitin of arthropods. carbohydrateClasses of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Sources The most common naturally occurring monosaccharides are D-glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, and D-galactose among the hexoses, and D-xylose and L-arabinose among the pentoses. In a special sense, D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose are ubiquitous because they form the carbohydrate component of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), respectively; these sugars are present in all cells as components of nucleic acids. Sources of some of the naturally occurring monosaccharides are listed in Table 2. D-xylose, found in most plants in the form of a polysaccharide called xylan, is prepared from corncobs, cottonseed hulls, or straw by chemical breakdown of xylan. D-galactose, a common constituent of both oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, also occurs in carbohydrate-containing lipids, called glycolipids, which are found in the brain and other nervous tissues of most animals. Galactose is generally prepared by acid hydrolysis (breakdown involving water) of lactose, which is composed of galactose and glucose. Since the biosynthesis of galactose in animals occurs through intermediate compounds derived directly from glucose, animals do not require galactose in the diet. In fact, in most human populations (Caucasoid peoples being the major exception) the majority of people do not retain the ability to manufacture the enzyme necessary to metabolize galactose after they reach the age of four, and many individuals possess a hereditary defect known as galactosemia and never have the ability to metabolize galactose.D-glucose (from the Greek word glykys, meaning sweet), the naturally occurring form, is found in fruits, honey, blood, and, under abnormal conditions, in urine. It is also a constituent of the two most common naturally found disaccharides, sucrose and lactose, as well as the exclusive structural unit of the polysaccharides cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Generally, D-glucose is prepared from either potato starch or cornstarch. D-fructose, a ketohexose, is one of the constituents of the disaccharide sucrose and is also found in uncombined form in honey, apples, and tomatoes. Fructose, generally considered the sweetest monosaccharide, is prepared by sucrose hydrolysis and is metabolized by man.Chemical reactions The reactions of the monosaccharides can be conveniently subdivided into those associated with the aldehydo or keto group and those associated with the hydroxyl groups.The relative ease with which sugars containing a free or potentially free aldehydo or keto group can be oxidized to form products has been known for a considerable time and once was the basis for the detection of these so-called reducing sugars in a variety of sources. .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .postImageUrl , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:hover , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:visited , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:active { border:0!important; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:active , .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6 .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud5c7adf6a347538bb3659199aee17fa6:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Nutrition In Mountain Biking Essay For many years, analyses of blood glucose and urinary glucose were carried out by a procedure involving the use of an alkaline copper compound. Because the reaction has undesirable featuresextensive destruction of carbohydrate structure occurs, and the reaction is not very specific (i.e., sugars other than glucose give similar results) and does not result in the formation of readily identifiable productsblood and urinary glucose now are analyzed

Business Model of an Organization Work †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Business Model Of An Organization Work? Answer: Introducation The business model of an organization refers to the clear and brief synopsis of the business operation of the organization. In short, an organizations business model contains principle of business creations and the capture and delivery of the business values in terms of economy, culture and society in which the organization has spread its business. It is considered that the business model is a part of business strategies that helps the organization to implement the strategies in a proper and right way. The business of model of any organization is meant to be the translating way of value proposition to the potential for revenue growth and overall profitability (Bocken et al., 2014). This can be said in other way that the business model is the way of creating rapid revenue growth for the company. The business model signifies the business purpose and function of an organization. For the proper completion of the business function, the business model needs a background. The most demanding and effective business models are primarily based on number of fundamental business templates or business personalities, which are called the business model archetypes (Bocken et al., 2014). This business templates are often called the spectrum templates, which are the basic fundamental personalities of business models. The business archetype is the necessary factor to understand the idea of business model. The primary archetype includes the product, service and trade whereas the secondary archetype includes the brokerage, subscription, marketplace and ecosystem. These seven archetypes are the fundamental basis of the business model, which are necessary for the design of the same. The primary and the overall aim of a business model are focused on creating the business growth, which is the reflection of the customers value propositions for the business. The business activity considers the participation of the capital human resources and the physical human resources for the accomplishment of the business goals. The activity system of the business model intents the internally dependent range of organizational activities around the organization. The activities of the business determinates such as customers, stakeholders, firm and the partners of the firm are executed by the activity system of business. The central concept of the activity system presents the internal dependency of the business activities by the different components responsible for the same (Bocken et al., 2016). A clear and precise picture is reflected through the interdependencies of the business activities, which are the result of the evolution process of the organization. The evolution process c overs the duration of sustainability of the business and the expansion of the business boundaries in the competitive and constant changing market (Schaltegger, Ldeke-Freund Hansen, 2012). The potential customers, suppliers and the stakeholders are defined by the activity system of the business. Revenue architecture is one of the basic components integrated into the business model. The pricing strategies and revenue growth of the business are referred by the cost revenue architecture of the business model. This revenue architectural business model generates cost revenue of the business and consequently the business model and revenue architecture are internally connected with each other (Schaltegger, Ldeke-Freund Hansen, 2012). Moreover, the cost revenue models and the business model are complementary to each other in terms of determining the pricing and designing strategies of the product or the service provided by the firm. The razor-blade model is one of the popular cost effective revenue architecture models that include the inexpensive pricing razor and marking up of the consumables (Baden-Fuller Haefliger, 2013). Precisely, the business model and the revenue model are interdependent in terms of generating the cost revenue for the business. The business model of an organization includes the capabilities of problem solving. The business model solves the static and dynamic problems inherited from the organizations business. The business model does the execution of the operational business activities by resolving the static and dynamic issues in the business (Chen Patton, 2012). The static dimensions of the business are supportive to the organization for fulfilling the current business activities without hurdles. However, the static business components do not always help in resolving the problems as it becomes preventive for the innovative business growth of the organization. This is when theFinancial business model needs to incorporate the dynamic elements of the business in order to integrate the innovative features (Fielt, 2013). The dynamic attributes of the business model enables the organization to adjust and react appositely to the contemporary market environment. The business model design proposes the conceptualiz ation of business goals to accomplish the elastic and constant attributes of the business model for ensuring the overall revenue growth competitive international market (Zhang Lopez-Pascual, 2012). Despite of possessing the quality of problem solving, the business model is also capable of generating conflicts in the business strategies. The innovative business model is the outcome of the entrepreneurial business approaches, which do not match with the potential business approaches (Massa Tucci, 2013). This major dynamic problem arises while designing or redesigning the business model. Another static problem is common due to the wrong perception of the businessperson about the similarity of the business model and the business strategies. The convergence of the intellectual territory with the business strategies creates further issues in the business model. For example, there is the need for spatial separation while dealing with the two competing and diverse business models in the same business industry. Thus, the design of the business model requires an experienced and inclusive vision of business objectives and existing perspective of the business in the global market (Mezger, 2014). The concept of the business context denotes such a context where the entire business community is employed. The business context is the basis of business community or the specialized business vocabulary. In addition, the prime and constant notion of the business context is change. Change is the constant factor of the business as the business values and the approaches in the global business market is rapidly changing with the pace of time. The needs for the new innovative business ideas, digitalization, and the new people are resulting into the rise of big data. The concept of big data signifies the business interruption and impacts increasingly effective result on the stakeholders of the firm. For example, the big data is projecting turbulent influence on the market. One of the major information technology companies, namely Capgemini has taken the initiatives to include the big data business model into the company for the effective involvement of the nontraditional stakeholders (Wiel ki, 2013). For obtaining the business objectives, the company is designing their business models centered on big data to ensure the value proposition of the business. After the implementation and execution of the business model based on big data the failure rate of the company has been decreased and the success rate has been increased respectively (Katal, Wazid Goudar, 2013). The prime focal point of the managers of the organization is the efficient staffs and innovative technologies, as the skilled people and the technological advancement are the basic requirement of the big data. The rapid and the cost effective growth of the organization is based on the big data as well as the clear insight of the managers regarding the same. The above discourse concludes the concept of the business model is and its implementation is one of the basic units in the business. The aim and function of the business model is to plan the business strategies along with balancing various business activities performed by the variables of the organization. The business model also influences the revenue growth of the business and resolves various static and dynamic problems of the firm. The essay presents the business context and the notion of change as the constant factor of the business that is capable of influencing the business in the global aspect. The result of the constant changing values leads the organization to redesign their business model using the big data, which effectively ensures the business growth. Reference: Baden-Fuller, C., Haefliger, S. (2013). Business models and technological innovation.Long range planning,46(6), 419-426. Bocken, N. M. P., Short, S. W., Rana, P., Evans, S. (2014). A literature and practice review to develop sustainable business model archetypes.Journal of cleaner production,65, 42-56. Bocken, N. M. P., Short, S. W., Rana, P., Evans, S. (2014). A literature and practice review to develop sustainable business model archetypes.Journal of cleaner production,65, 42-56. Bocken, N. M., de Pauw, I., Bakker, C., van der Grinten, B. (2016). Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy.Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering,33(5), 308-320. Chen, J., Patton, R. J. (2012).Robust model-based fault diagnosis for dynamic systems(Vol. 3). Springer Science Business Media. Fielt, E. (2013). Conceptualising business models: Definitions, frameworks and classifications.Journal of Business Models,1(1), 85. Katal, A., Wazid, M., Goudar, R. H. (2013, August). Big data: issues, challenges, tools and good practices. InContemporary Computing (IC3), 2013 Sixth International Conference on(pp. 404-409). IEEE. Massa, L., Tucci, C. L. (2013). Business model innovation.The Oxford handbook of innovation management,20, 18. Mezger, F. (2014). Toward a capability?based conceptualization of business model innovation: insights from an explorative study.RD Management,44(5), 429-449. Schaltegger, S., Ldeke-Freund, F., Hansen, E. G. (2012). Business cases for sustainability: the role of business model innovation for corporate sustainability.International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development,6(2), 95-119. Wielki, J. (2013, September). Implementation of the big data concept in organizations-possibilities, impediments and challenges. InComputer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS), 2013 Federated Conference on(pp. 985-989). IEEE. Zhang, Y., Lopez-Pascual, J. (2012). Dynamic versus static culture in international business: a study of Spanish banking in China.Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,19(4), 588-611.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Research Paper on Climate Change the Myth of Global Warming Essay Example

Research Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming Essay This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the development of this research paper: Our class peer research group for the cooperation and camaraderie. We are also heartily thankful to our teacher, Mr. /Ms. _____, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the subject. To our truly great friend Don who has made available his support in a number of ways. Lastly, We offer our regards and blessings to all of those who supported us in any respect during the completion of the project. Name of Students Here 1 ABSTRACT The surface of the earth has been warming, the average temperature increasing, for several years. People studying this do not agree on the cause of the warming trend. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Some say that man has caused the change; others claim that it is a natural trend. If some environmentalists are to be believed, we are on the verge of massive global climate change which will see a significant rise in sea levels, chaotic weather patterns, and catastrophic droughts all caused by small increase in global average temperature. Whether global warming is a problem that can be dealt with, will depend not only on the ways that are available to governments and people to act but also on their will to act in response to this environmental change. INTRODUCTION Man-made pollution is evident; from litter in local streams to plumes of carbon dense smoke billowing out of power plants, it has become apparent sustainability is not a priority. In addition, our resources are being used and abused much faster than the earth can replenish and recover. Recently, this abuse on Mother Nature has become a topic of great interest. Known as the â€Å"green movement†, advocates stress awareness of waste and pollution and its effect on the environment. The most publicized consequence of our non-earth friendly actions is global warming. This theory is blindly adopted with little scientific evidence because it justifies the worlds’ need to go green. When the overwhelming facts concerning greenhouse gasses and the sheer amount of waste humans produce is taken into account, there is no wonder global warming is justified in peoples’ minds. Although human induced global warming is a popular theory, it is misleading because climate change has occurred throughout history, our most recent period of warming ended over ten years ago, and the earth is currently in a state of cooling. 2 RATIONALS AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Climate change is nothing new. In the life span of earth, a climate where humans could and have inhabited the planted are mere smudges on its’ climate time line. Starting with the big bang over 13. 7 billion years ago, the earth has experienced cycles of hot flashes and freezing spells (Global Warming and Global Cooling, 2007, p. 2). As recently as 650 million years ago the earth was frozen solid. This period of 10 million years is known as snowball earth. After this period, volcanoes began to erupt producing greenhouse gases, which warmed the earth. Over the next 400 million years, global temperatures rose and fell allowing for small life forms to succeed. Plants, cold-blooded animals, and insects did well during this time. Then, quite suddenly, there was mass extinction. Over 95% of the earth’s species died due to flood basalt eruptions lasting for one million years. The earths’ temperatures rose an impressive 18oF due to a 700% increase of CO2 during this time. It then took 195 billion years for the blanked of CO2 to dissipate and earth to cool, once again allowing inhabitants. At 55 million years ago another 200F increase occurred due to increased methane gas. Over the next 40 million years, temperatures continued to fluctuate, allowing for the polar ice caps to expand and retreat. Since, the climate has stayed relatively stable with only a single ice age. When temperatures warmed, woolly mammoths that thrived during the ice age and other mega mammals could not survive, while humans where able to adapt (A Global Warning? , 2007). However, it would be naive to thinking climate change would miraculously come to a stop on behalf of human inhabitation. The above-mentioned changes had drastic effects on the earth. Recently there has been less drastic, however still noticeable, climate fluctuations. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM For several years believers and skeptics have argued about the causes of global warming. The problem is complicated because believers warn that man-made causes if left to advance too far may be irreversible. Reduction of the rainforests, continued growth in hydrocarbon industries, increases in livestock, and depletion of the ozone are all considered factors in the debate. Skeptics maintain that the climate change is a natural phenomenon, that man’s effect on nature is largely overrated. The fact is that for several years, the earth’s temperature is rising. The problem remains in deciding what if anything we can do about it. 3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS All research studies also have limitations and a finite scope. In our case, limitations are more on time and budget constraints. Information and data were gathered from various sources including the internet. Conducting scientific studies and experiments on a global scale would be next to impossible for high school students like us. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The most recognized examples of modern climate change are known as the Medieval Warming Period and the Little Ice Age. The Medieval Warming Period (MWP) took place between 800 and 1300 AD and consisted of temperatures up to 5oF warmer than today. These temperatures played a huge role in history, as it was what allowed the Vikings to colonize Greenland. Although it is currently being debated, this period of warmth could have been global. If so, the slightly elevated temperatures seen over the last thirty years would not be unprecedented. Following the MWP was the Little Ice Age (LIA). This period consisted of three consecutive cold spikes with slightly warmer periods in-between. These spikes occurred at about 1650,1770, and 1850 and are well documented in North America and Europe. As with the MWP, it is debatable whether these were global events (Natural and anthropogenic climate change, 2004). Regardless, a correlation between temperature and sun spot activity known as the Maunder Minimum developed with help from observations from that time (An imperative for climate change planning, 2009). Not only do these historical events contradict the current theory of man-mad global warming; the research gained from these events brings to light other justification for natural occurring climate change. 4 DEFINITION OF TERMS For the purpose of this research, the following terms are hereby defined: greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. reenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface, energy is transferred to the surface and the lower atmosphere. As a result, the temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by so lar radiation were the only warming mechanism. global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. CO2 emission or carbon dioxide emission is the amount of carbon dioxide released. sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They are caused by intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection by an effect comparable at the eddy current brake, forming areas of reduced surface temperature. NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration: an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight. 5 BODY OF THE RESEARCH There is no doubt the earth has and will continue to experience periods of warming. Our most recent period began in the 1900s and lasted through the year 2000. â€Å"Research results show that the sun, which began brightening 100-150 years ago, may be the strongest it has been in 1,000 years. This increased brightness is due to sunspots. It is not crystal clear as to the correlation between sunspots and climate change, however, a rough assumption is that the more sun spots there are, the brighter it is, and there for more heat is produced. In addition, sunspots create a magnetic cycle that has been found to correlate with the Northern Hemisphere land temperatures (Global Warming: Sun Takes Some Heat, 2004). The important thing to note is the date attached to the above data. At that time the earth was in fact warming. Since the early 2000s, data has shown the earth is once again cooling. According to NASA, sunspots are on the decline; out of the 365 days in 2008, 266 where sunspot free. This was though to be an all time low since 1913, but low and behold 2009 came a round with 87% of the days sunspot free. The graph accompanying the article depicts a peak in solar activity right around 2000, with a sharp decline predicted through 2012. Other studies have found similar evidence. In the journal Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects a study was published analyzing the affects of CO2 and the atmosphere. The scientists concluded â€Å"relatively short-term variations in global temperature are mainly caused by the variations in solar activity and are not linked to the changes in carbon dioxide content in [the] atmosphere†(Cooling of Atmosphere, 2008). The recent cooling and previous period of warming are considered short-term temperature changes and cannot be sited for significant data. However, events like the Little Ice Age have more historical bearing. 500 years is a much more substantial duration of time, yet still trivial in comparison to the earths’ first ice age of one million years. As the worlds’ reliance on fossil fuels increases, so do the byproducts of consumerism. Ever increasing amounts of CO2 and other green house gasses are being admitted into the atmosphere as more cars are on the road and more energy is being produced. Previously, CO2 billowing out of volcanoes was responsible for drastic temperature changes. At times the earth was more than 20oF warmer than it is now. This is poor support for global warming theorists however. The volcanic eruptions responsible for the warming occurred over the course of 6 thousands of years. These endless eruptions covered the majority of the earth in molten lava and produced miles of thick carbon (A Global Warning? , 2007). This scene is unfathomable for humans and is in no way comparable to the current levels of CO2 found in the atmosphere. CONCLUSION It is clear there is little concrete scientific evidence to support or deny global warming. What can be confirmed is that climate change is inevitable. Some studies have gone as far as to say the increase in CO2 leads to cooling, not warming. This conclusion has a simple physical explanation: when the infrared radiation is absorbed by the molecules of greenhouse gases, its energy is transformed into thermal expansion of air, which causes convective fluxes of air masses restoring the adiabatic distribution of temperature in the troposphere. Our estimates show that release of small amounts of carbon dioxide (several hundreds ppm), which are typical for the scope of anthropogenic emission, does not influence the global temperature of Earth’s atmosphere (Cooling of Atmosphere, 2008). SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION f this subject is studied further and found to be true, there is no doubt a wrench will be thrown in this crucial argument. With compelling, yet questionable evidence for those who agree and disagree with the theory of global warming. There is no doubt the debate will continue as more research is performed and time goes on. 7 There is no question global warming is a complex issue, however it is nothing new. Throughout history extreme climate has been normal. Regardless of what man kind has done byway of contamination, the earth will continue about its’ climate cycles without batting an eye. Human life is a fluke, developed from ideal conditions in an inhabitable environment. Humans are but insignificant guest in this world who have failed to respect their hostess. They have polluted and contaminated the environment, but the earth will power on. The current climate fluctuations are not significant enough to draw conclusions on. Be it another ice age or incinerating heat, the tectonic plates will shift, the volcanoes will erupt and over millions of years people will be but a memory. However, humans are the earths’ current inhabitants. To continue to live, sustainability must be kept in mind. Research is contradictory on the subject of climate change, however there is no denying, the earth is its own entity, unbound by the actions of man. Humans are but innocent bystanders of earth’s natural climate change. References Baliunas, S. (1999, August 5). Why So Hot? Don’t Blame Man, Blame the Sun. The Wall Street journal, 18. Chilingar, G. V. , Khilyuk, L. F. , amp; Sorokhtin, O. G. (2008, January). Cooling of Atmosphere Due to CO2 Emission. Energy Sources Part A: Recovery, Utilization amp; Environmental Effects, 30(1), 1-9. doi:10. 1080/? 15567030701568727 Deep Solar Minimum . (2009, April 1). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved April 3, 2010, from NASA website: http://science. nasa. gov/? science-news/? science-at-nasa/? 2009/? 01apr_deepsolarminimum/ Diffenbaugh, N. S. (2009, December). Influence of modern land cover on the climate of the United States. Climate Dynamics, 33(7), 945-958. doi:10. 007/? s00382-009-0566-z Global Warming: Sun Takes Some Heat. (2004, October). Environment, 46(8), 7. Retrieved from http://p8333-metalib5. hosted. exlibrisgroup. com. proxy. library. uaf. edu/? V/? QRRXDVTGAV9K6FN15KYB3N4LT6JFNFQ8IGB5IM6FAFVQKR6DVM-02659? func=quick-3amp;short-format=002amp;set_number=000499amp;set_entry=000001amp;format=999 Hanlon, M. (2005, May 19). Climate Change. Nature, 435(7040), 384. doi:10. 1038/? 435384a 8 Hulme, M. (2009). Why we disagree about climate change. New York,NY: Cambridge University Press. Kohler, P. , Bintanja, R. , Fischer, H. , Joos, F. , Knutti, R. Lohmann, G. , amp; Masson-Delmotte, V. (2010, January). What caused Earth’s temperature variations during the last 800,000 years? Data-based evidence on radiative forcing and constraints on climate sensitivity. . Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(1), 129-145. doi:10. 1016/? j. quascirev. 2009. 09. 026 Levitt, S. D. , amp; Dubner, S. J. (2009). Superfreakonomics. New York,NY: HarperCollins. Marsh, S. (Producer), amp; Hearle, A. (Director). (2007). A Global Warning? [Motion picture]. United States : Aamp;E Television Networks. Mathews, H. D. , Weaver, A. J. , Meissner, K. J. , Gillett, N. P. amp; Eby, M. (2004, May). Natural and anthropogenic climate change: incorporating historical land cover change, vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle. Climate Dynamics, 22(5), 461-479 . doi:10. 1007/? s00382-004-0392-2 Melezhik, V. A. (2006, April). Multiple causes of Earth’s earliest global glaciation. Terra Nova, 18(2), 130-137. doi:10. 1111/? j. 1365-3121. 2006. 00672. x Michaelowa, A. (2009, December). Limiting Global Cooling after Global Warming is Over — Differentiating Between Short- and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases. OPEC Review: Energy Economics amp; Related Issues, 24(4), 343-351. oi:10. 1111/? j. 0277-0180. 2003. 00075. x Qlan, L. , Burns, A. , Solomon, S. C. , amp; Roble, R. (2009, October). The effect of carbon dioxide cooling on trends in the F2-layer ionosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71(14), 1592-1601. doi:10. 1016/? j. jastp. 2009. 03. 006 Reilly, M. (2006, October 7). Cooling oceans buck global trend. The New Scientist, 192(2572), 14. doi:10. 1016/? S0262-4079(06)60643-X Sorokhtin, O. G. , Chilingar, G. V. , amp; Khilyuk, L. F. (2007). Global Warming and Global Cooling: Evolution of climate on earth. Th e Netherlands: ELSEVIER. Trenberth, K. E. (2009, October 3). An imperative for climate change planning: tracking Earth’s global energy. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1(1), 19-27. doi:10. 1016/? j. cosust. 2009. 06. 001 Walker, S. M. (2009). We are the weather makers: the history of climate change. Somerville, Massachusetts: Candlewick press. 9 Questionaire 1. Is global warming a problem? The answer to this question is a resounding . maybe. The reason I say maybe is that the debate over global warming is a mix of solid scientific facts and subjective interpretations of those facts. Aside from the uncertainties in the scientific information on the physical aspects of global warming, there is considerable wiggle room for a wide range of subjective interpretations of the science and the implications of its uncertainties. 2. Is global warming happening, as we speak? It appears that all observers agree that the global climate has warmed up in the past few decades. However, some argue that the warming began with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, in the early 1800s, and continues today. They agree that there have been ups and downs in the trends of global average temperature, but those fluctuations do not undermine the basic tenet that the global climate is warmer today than in past decades. Others (the naysayers or non-believers in climate change) agree that there is a warming trend over the past few decades but that the variability of recent global climate falls within the range that might be expected from the behavior of normal climatic conditions over longer periods of time, such as centuries. Thus, they downplay the view that human activities are affecting global climate. 3. Is the scientific information in hand today strong enough to prompt societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? There is still considerable uncertainty in the science of climate change and its potential impacts on societies and ecosystems. Whether what is known is enough to prompt action by governments, different sectors of society, or individuals will likely depend on whether the decision-makers are either risk-takers or risk-averse. Some will argue that it would be more prudent to be safe than sorry and will thus try to prevent the continued buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The opposing view, held by those who are willing to take the risk for themselves (while making the risk for others), demands more certainty in the science. Deep down, they feel that in the event their view turns out to have been wrong, technologies can be developed to get rid of or at least control the problem (i. e. , the technological fix). 10 4. Is human activity involved in the global warming trend of the past century and a half? There is convincing and mounting evidence that human activities related to industrial processes and deforestation are altering the global climate. It has been shown that human activities can alter climate on a local and regional scale. Why not on the global scale as well? The naysayers cannot accept that there might be such a potent human influence on the atmosphere. They argue that the fingerprint of human activity is non-existent and that what we are seeing is a natural variation in global temperatures. They argue that the global climate, since the end of the 18th century, has been rebounding from the Little Ice Age, which lasted from the 1500s to the 1800s. 5. Is any country really committed to dealing with national GHG reductions, even in the absence of other countries doing so? There is considerable discussion about the responsibilities of nations to reduce their output of GHGs. While some governments agree that there must be cuts in GHG emissions, others oppose such cuts as unwarranted for a variety of political, economic, or ideological reasons. Some governments have taken the lead on the reduction issue by calling on all governments to lower their GHG emissions. However, it seems that there is more discussion thus far than action. There are proposals to trade permits among countries, permits that allow those who can afford it to buy up the unused permits from other countries. But is this a fair solution? Or, is it a case of the rich countries buying away from the developing countries their legal right to pollute the global atmosphere with increasing amounts of GHGs? 6. Are climate extremes and other climate-related anomalies reliably connected to global warming? Speculation abounds about the impacts on the frequency, intensity, duration and location of climate extremes and climate-related impacts of GHGs. However, the attribution of cause and effect with regard to global warming remains a difficult issue that merits much more attention than it has been getting from the climate research community. The media, the general public, policy-makers, and even scientists have been rather lax in what climate-related impacts they attribute to human-induced global warming of the atmosphere. 7. Is global warming the type of creeping environmental problem that can be met with graduated societal responses? One could argue that global warming is a creeping environmental change. Creeping means it is an incremental change that is only marginally detectable from one year to the next. Todays 11 atmospheric content of GHGs is not much different from yesterdays. Tomorrows is not much different than todays. However, in a few years, those incremental changes will have added up to a major environmental change. Often by the time those changes have combined, the environmental change will have turned into an environmental crisis. In this regard, global warming is similar to other creeping environmental changes such as air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, soil erosion, deforestation, and so forth. Unfortunately, graduated societal responses to slowly compounding environmental changes may not resolve the problem. Dealing with such problems requires getting ahead of them, that is; leap-frogging over the near future to gain a glimpse of how the creeping changes will likely evolve in the future, given no attempts to arrest them. One might then be able to see that there is a need to respond more quickly and effectively in bringing an end to a seemingly unimportant creeping environmental change. 8. Who is responsible for our current predicament, if global warming is agreed to by all as happening as a result of GHG emissions due to human activities? Global warming scientists contend that the industrialized countries are responsible for the large increases in GHGs in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. They also contend that the developing countries will become the dominant emitters of GHGs in the future as a result of their development activities, including the increased burning of fossil fuels, increased tropical deforestation, and, in general, an increase in affluence. Industrialized countries argue that all countries should seek to reduce GHG emissions, since all countries are likely to suffer the impacts of global warming. A change in the status quo of the global climate system is viewed as a bad thing, something we must all work to avoid. They call on all nations to join in the sacrifice for the betterment of future generations. For their part, developing country representatives argue that it is the rich, industrialized nations that saturated the atmosphere with a critical amount of GHGs in the first place and, therefore, it is up to them to resolve the problem. They can choose either to drastically cut back their own emissions or provide clean energy technology to developing countries, most of which do not have the means to buy it. The problem with the issue of who is causing the human-induced global warming of the atmosphere is that the answer also identifies who has the first, if not primary, responsibility to resolve the problem.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

10 Phosphorus Facts (P or Atomic Number 15)

10 Phosphorus Facts (P or Atomic Number 15)   Phosphorus is element 15 on the periodic table, with the element symbol P. Because it is so chemically reactive, phosphorus is never found free in nature, yet you encounter this element in compounds and in your body. Here are 10 interesting facts about phosphorus: Fast Facts: Phosphorus Element Name: PhosphorusElement Symbol: PAtomic Number: 15Classification: Group 15; Pnictogen; NonmetalAppearance: Appearance depends on the allotrope. Phosphorus is a solid at room temperature. It may be white, yellow, red, violet, or black.Electron Configuration:  [Ne] 3s2  3p3Discovery: Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier (1777), but officially discovered by Hennig Brand (1669). Interesting Phosphorus Facts Phosphorus was discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brand in Germany. Brand isolated phosphorus from urine. The discovery made Brand the first person to discover a new element. Other elements such as gold and iron were known before that, but no specific person found them.Brand called the new element cold fire because it glowed in the dark. The name of the element comes from the Greek word phosphoros, which means bringer of light. The form of phosphorus Brand discovered was white phosphorus, which reacts with oxygen in air to produce a green-white light. Although you might think the glow would be phosphorescence, phosphorus is chemiluminescent and not phosphorescent. Only the white allotrope or form of phosphorus glows in the dark.Some texts refer to phosphorus as the Devils Element because of its eerie glow, tendency to burst into flame, and because it was the 13th known element.Like other nonmetals, pure phosphorus assumes markedly different forms. There are at least five phosphorus allotro pes. In addition to white phosphorus, there is red, violet, and black phosphorus. Under ordinary conditions, red and white phosphorus are the most common forms. While the properties of phosphorus depend on the allotrope, they share common nonmetallic characteristics. Phosphorus is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, except black phosphorus. All types of phosphorus are solid at room temperature. The white form (sometimes called yellow phosphorus) resembles wax, the red and violet forms are noncrystalline solids, while the black allotrope resembles graphite in pencil lead. The pure element is reactive, so much so that the white form will ignite spontaneously in air. Phosphorus typically has an oxidation state of 3 or 5.Phosphorus is essential to living organisms. There are about 750 grams of phosphorus in the average adult. In the human body, its found in DNA, bones, and as an ion used for muscle contraction and nerve conduction. Pure phosphorus, however, can be deadly. White phosphorus, in particular, is associated with negative health effects. When matches were made using white phosphorus, a disease known as phossy jaw caused disfigura tion and death. Contact with white phosphorus can cause chemical burns. Red phosphorus is a safer alternative and is considered non-toxic. Natural phosphorus consists of one stable isotope, phosphorus-31. At least 23 isotopes of the element are known.The primary use of phosphorus is for fertilizer production. The element is also used in flares, safety matches, light-emitting diodes, and steel production. Phosphates are used in some detergents. Red phosphorus is also one of the chemicals used in illegal production of methamphetamines.According to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, phosphorus may have been brought to Earth by meteorites. The release of phosphorus compounds seen early in Earths history (yet not today) contributed to the conditions needed for the origin of life. Phosphorus is abundant in the Earths crust at a concentration of about 1050 parts per million, by weight.While its certainly possible to isolate phosphorus from urine or bone, today the element is isolated from phosphate-bearing minerals. Phosphorus is obtained from calcium phosphate by heating the rock in a furnace to yield tetraphosphorus vapor. The vapor is condensed into phosphorus under water to prevent ignition. Sources Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Ed.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann.Hammond, C. R. (2000).  The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics  (81st ed.). CRC press.​Meija, J.; et al. (2016). Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91.Weast, Robert (1984).  CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp.  E110.